Bali, Indonesia – WorldAtlas
The archipelagic nation of Indonesia is located between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean and includes more than 17,504 islands. Covering a total area of 5,780 km2, the island of Bali is the westernmost island of the Lesser Sunda group and a province of the Republic of Indonesia.
Bali is located approximately 8 ° south of the equator, west of Lombok Island and east of Java Island. The 2.4 km wide Bali Strait separates Bali from Java, while the 60 km Lombok Strait separates Lombok from the island of Bali.
Bali is around 112 km long and has a maximum width of around 153 km. Much of Bali is mountainous and the island includes several peaks over 2000m above sea level. Mount Agung (Bali Peak), which rises to an altitude of approximately 3,142 m, is the highest point on the island of Bali. Also called “Mother Mountain”, Mount Agung is an active volcano whose last eruption in 1963 devastated several villages and killed more than 1,500 people on the island. There are a few small rivers on the island, including the Ayung River, Sungi River, and Telaga Waja River.
Bali’s volcanic nature has contributed to its exceptional fertility and the island’s high mountain ranges also cause heavy rainfall, thus supporting its highly productive agricultural sector. Located to the south of the central mountains are the main lowlands of the island, where most of the rice cultivation is practiced. The northern part of the mountain is steeper towards the sea and forms the main coffee producing area of the island where, along with coffee, vegetables, rice and livestock are also produced. Bali is surrounded by coral reefs. White sand beaches are found in the southern part of the island, while black sand beaches are found in the northern and western parts of the island.
Located near the south coast of the island is Denpasar, the provincial capital and largest city of Bali. The three small islands of Nusa Ceningan, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Penida are under the administration of the Klungkung regency of Bali and are located in the south-eastern part of the island. The Badung Strait, 20 km wide, separates the three islands of Bali.
Due to its proximity to the equator, Bali experiences a considerably uniform climate with average daily temperatures between 20 and 33 ° C throughout the year. The monsoon season on the island runs from December to March.
Designed by the famous naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace in 1859, the Wallace Line is a biogeographical division between Australian and Southeast Asian fauna. The island of Bali is located west of the Wallace Line and therefore has similar wildlife characteristics to Southeast Asia. Over 280 avian species are found in Bali, including the endemic Bali myna and other species like the black-necked oriole, barn swallow, crested serpent eagle, Java sparrow, mouthpiece of the savannah, the yellow wind bulbul, the sacred kingfisher, etc. there are also squirrels, Asian palm civets, bats, crab macaques, Java langurs, giant black squirrels, Sunda pangolins and leopards. More than 500 species of reef-building corals have been recorded in the region of the island of Bali.
Many marine animals like barracuda, hawksbill turtle, giant sunfish, giant moray eel, hammerhead shark, and sea snakes have been recorded in the waters around the island of Bali.
Bali was originally inhabited by the Austronesian people around 2000 BCE, who migrated to the island from Taiwan. The Balinese people were culturally and linguistically linked to the inhabitants of Malaysia, Oceania and the Indonesian archipelago. Most of the island’s inhabitants were followers of Balinese Hinduism and the various Hindu sects of Brahma, Bodha, Bhairawa, Ganapatya, Pasupata, Sora, Siwa Shidanta, Resi and Vaishnava existed in ancient Bali.
In 914 AD, the Balinese people developed Subak, their complex irrigation system for growing rice in wet fields. In 1512, Portuguese explorers Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão were the first Europeans to visit the island. Cornelis de Houtman, the Dutch explorer, landed in Bali and created the Dutch East India Company. The famous naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace arrived in Bali in June 1860. During World War II, the island was occupied by Japanese forces. In 1946 Bali became part of the state of Eastern Indonesia. On December 29, 1949, Bali became part of the Republic of Indonesia.