Indonesia: Earthquakes and Tsunamis Final Report No. MDRID013 (February 15, 2022) – Indonesia
A. ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION
Description of the disaster
Background (Operation Lombok)
Since the first 6.4 magnitude earthquake struck Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia on July 29, 2018, four more earthquakes and multiple aftershocks have affected the districts of North Lombok, East Lombok, West Lombok, Central Lombok, Mataram and Sumbawa Island, in addition to Bali Island. The Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management (Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana or BNPB) reported more than 564 dead and nearly 150,000 homes damaged due to the quakes.
Another magnitude 5.8 earthquake shook Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara on March 17, 2019, with a depth of 19 km and followed within minutes by another magnitude 5.2 earthquake with a depth of 10 km and an epicenter located in East Lombok. The earthquake was felt strongly in West Lombok, North Lombok, East Lombok and lightly in Central Lombok and Mataram. No tsunami warning was issued by the authorities; however, the residents of Lombok panicked and evacuated to the nearest higher ground.
On March 18, 2019, joint PMI/IFRC teams traveled to North Lombok and East Lombok districts for further damage and needs assessment. A newsletter was published on March 22. The findings of the assessment did not reflect the main needs. PMI, supported by the IFRC, provided assistance to affected families without the need to revise the emergency action plan.
Background (Central Sulawesi Operation)
On September 28, 2018, a series of strong earthquakes hit the Central Sulawesi province. The strongest of them measured a magnitude of 7.4 and 10 km deep with the epicenter at Donggala Regency, near the provincial capital Palu.
The earthquake triggered a tsunami that reached up to three meters in some areas, hitting Talise beach in Palu and Donggala. The earthquakes, tsunami and resulting liquefaction and landslides caused significant damage and loss of life in the affected areas.
The government reported that 4,140 people died in the disaster, of whom 1,016 were unidentified; and 705 other people are still missing. Over 4,400 people were seriously injured and over 110,000 homes destroyed, damaged or lost due to the earthquake, tsunami or liquefaction. Of these, 27,662 houses were badly damaged while over 6,500 were lost (mostly due to liquefaction). In its wake, nearly 173,000 people were displaced. Currently, some people are living in government-built barracks (huntaras), while others are sheltering in their damaged homes or with relatives in other communities or within their own.
Over 320 district and community health facilities and 1,300 schools were also damaged.
The state of the government response is in the recovery phase.
Background (Operation Sunda)
On December 22, 2018, another tsunami hit Carita Beach in Banten Province and the coast around Sunda Strait, particularly in Pandenglang, South Lampung and Serang districts. The tsunami was generated when part of the Krakatau volcano collapsed into the sea and displaced large amounts of water.
According to government reports, more than 1,600 houses were severely damaged or destroyed and more than 600 were moderately or lightly damaged, displacing more than 16,000 people. The disaster also killed more than 400 people and injured more than 14,000. More than half of the casualties were recorded in Pandegnlang district.
The tsunami was recorded four times at four different locations with waves reaching a height of 0.3 to 0.9 meters. The highest wave hit Serang sub-district with a height of 0.9m. The National Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency – Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) issued a high tide warning before the tsunami hit the mentioned area. A tsunami early warning was not issued because the cause of the tsunami was not an earthquake, which the current system monitors and responds to.
BPBD, in conjunction with the military, police, BASARNAS, local government office, Ministry of Social Welfare Volunteers (TAGANA), PMI, volunteers and the community provided emergency response support to those affected. The response was coordinated locally in a command post, with the establishment’s field kitchens and displacement sites. Heavy equipment was dispatched to clear the debris to aid evacuation and response efforts.
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